For Recipe Writers and Cooks
A Page under development
I love how popular Indian food is becoming. In the time that I have been using twitter, I have seen a shift from Indian food being a strange entity to the non-Indian follows that I had, to a familiarity with terms such as dosa, rasam, sambar, vada etc and much more familiarity with spices. Now Indian foodies follow non-Indian and vise versa. It wasn’t so common, say, 5 years ago. I love that growth in understanding of Indian food and the confidence to cook it at home.
I notice a small trend with the bloggers of Indian food to use non-Indian terms to describe the dishes, and I say this with sadness. I love the education process that goes on with retaining traditional names, while clarifying uncommon terms. So upma should remain as upma, vada as vada and dosa as dosa. And ghee as ghee (and not clarified butter).
Indian food is first of all very precise. By this I mean that there are very strong traditions around how food is prepared and eaten. Which spice mix goes with which lentil or vegetable, whether the dish is semi or fully liquid, what is eaten with a particular dish, even which part of the year it is cooked.
Secondly, Indian food is also very very regional, in a way that we are not used to in many parts of the world. What is de rigour in one part of India is unacceptable in another part. So you can understand that learning about Indian food if you do not have an Indian food tradition, can be confusing.
This page represents a humble attempt to pull together some of my learnings as I journeyed and continue to journey into the world of Indian cooking. My loves are Sth Indian food with a preference for traditional foods, and you will notice that here. However, feel free to add information, clarification, corrections and questions and I will do my best to make sure things are properly represented.
I hope this helps both readers and writers of Indian recipes.
I often see recipes for Indian food that include instructions such as “take a ladleful of ..” or “a <insert Indian fruit> sized ball of …”. When writing recipes for a wide audience, the more common measures of cup, or better still, by spoon (Tblspn or tspn), volume (ml or l) or weight (g) are more accurate and standardised. If the measure is actually meant to be an approximate measure, use phrases such as “about 1/2 cup of …”.
Even the phrase “lemon sized ball of …” is misleading as lemons can vary in size from small (golf ball sized ) to large (meteor sized ).
Note that a cup measure is not a standard amount, varying from in the US to other UK-influenced parts of the world. But it is usually accurate enough. Recipes, such as breads, that require much more precision, will be written using volumes and weights.
Tempering: Almost every savoury dish in India is tempered – that is, spices heated in oil are added either at the beginning of the cooking but more usually at the end of cooking. A little oil or ghee is heated and then the relevant spices are added and cooked until they change colour, pop or crackle. Sometimes small amounts of lentils such as Urad Dal are added for flavouring and texture.
Although the basic concept of tempering is the same all over India, each region, indeed every family has its own distinctive set of spices used and way of tempering, and of course each claims proudly & possessively that theirs is the best way to temper food! (Priya)
Different areas have different names for tempering, e.g. Tadka / Talimpu.
Daba / Dhaba: A container with a lid that holds 6 or 7 individual pots containing spices commonly used in that household. See this post on tempering with spices.
Handi: A deep, narrow-mouthed cooking vessel used in Indian cooking.
Kadai / Kadahi: A wok like fry pan with two handles used for stir-frying, boiling, frying and deep frying. It is different to a Chinese Wok.
Tawa / Tava: A flat griddle or rimless pan used for making roti, paratha and dosa, and for roasting spices.
Pressure Cooker: Used extensively in Indian cooking to shorten the cooking times, especially of lentils.
Mixie / Mixer / Grinder: Specialised tools exist for grinding lentils, dried beans, wheat etc into flour. A blender can be used but may not obtain the fineness that is possible with a Mixie. It can also be used to grind spices and spice mixes (masalas) and make shakes.
Non-Stick Frying Pans: These are commonly used to cook dosa etc more easily. However, if your tawa is sufficiently seasoned it is possible to cook them very well on a good tawa. In addition, the taste is much better cooked on the tawa than on a non-stick pan.
Belan: Rolling pin. There are very thin, short rolling pins for rolling roti and other flat breads.
Karche / Ladle: A larger spoon, more like a flat Western soup ladle.
Donga: Serving bowl.
Sevai Press: Sevai Presses are used to make Sevai, Sth Indian rice noodles (gluten free). See one here in Tongue Tickler’s Post.
Pigeon Peas = Toor Dal = Tuvar Dal = Toovar Dal = Tur Dal = Arhar Dal = Yellow Split Peas
If you see Pigeon Peas in a recipe, this is another name for Toor Dal / Tuvar Dal.
Don’t be fooled. When an Indian recipe says Red Gram or even Red Lentils it probably means Toor/Tuvor Dal (which is yellow). It is called Red Lentils because in its unadulterated state Toor Dal has a red skin.
For writers of Indian recipes, Red Lentils in parts of the rest of the world means Split Masoor Dal. You can see that it makes quite a difference! When writing recipes, be explicit about the lentil. For example, write Red Gram (Toor Dal).
Chillies, Red (means DRIED red chillies)
Red Chillies in most Indian recipes means Dried Red Chillies. Fresh red chillies are seldom encountered, unlike green chillies which are always fresh. This is in contrast to other cuisines in SE Asia which will use fresh red chillies quite freely.
When writing recipes for Indian food, be explicit. Write Dried Red Chillies.
Indian Bay Leaves or Teja Pata (are not bay leaves)
See Teja Pata.
These spice pods look a little like huge cloves, but are unrelated to cloves. Related to the caper, if you cannot find Marathi Moggu, dry some salt-cured capers and substitute for this spice.
Red Chillies — see Chillies, Red
Teja Pata / Malabathrum (are not laurel leaves or bay leaves)
Teja Pata, or Indian Bay leaves are not the same as the Laural Bay or Sweet Bay used in the west. It is also not the same as the Balinese Bay leaf (Daun Salam) or the West Indian Bay Leaf. Don’t substitute with a Laurel Bay leaf, even if the recipe says to do so. There is no similarity between the two. The best thing to do if you don’t have Teja Pata is to leave it out altogether, or add a little cassia, cinnamon or an extra clove instead.
The bay leaves all have different flavors. The Teja Patta (or Tejpat) is usually much larger than a Sweet Bay, and has three spines down the middle instead of one. It is the leaf of the cassia plant. It has a cinnamon- or clove-like flavor, totally unlike the other varieties. In appearance, the leaf of the Cinnamomum tejpata (malabathrum) tree is similar to the other bay leaves, but is culinarily quite different, having a fragrance and taste similar to cinnamon (cassia) bark, but milder. In culinary terms, it is misleading to call it bay leaf because it is of a genus other than that of the bay laurel tree, it does not taste the same as the bay laurel leaf, and cannot be used in cooking as a substitute for the bay laurel leaf.
If you are writing Indian recipes, use the term Teja Pata or malabathrum rather than Bay Leaves as it can be confusing for cooks who are not familiar with the difference, and do no tuse the term Laural Leaf as this is incorrect.
The Sanskrit name tamalapattra [तमालपत्त्र] means
dark leaf. Greek traders took that name changing it to malabathron. This name was then taken by the Romans as malabathrum or malobathrum. Many recent languages of Northern India have names for Indian bay-leaf that derive from that Sanskrit term, e.g., Marathi tamal patra [तमाल पत्र]. In Hindi and some related tongues, the spice is known as tejpatta [तेजपत्ता]
pungent leaf. Tamil hat probably the best descriptive name for this spice: ilavangapattiri [இலவங்கபத்திரி]
cinnamon leaf. (Spice Pages)
Ghee (is not clarified butter) or: Why Ghee is not Clarified Butter
Ghee is a type of clarified butter, but much confusion arises from equating ghee to clarified butter.
Clarified butter is a term used particularly in French cooking. It is a product where butter is melted to drive off a little of the moisture and alter the flavour slightly.
Ghee is a product where all moisture and all impure products such as salt, are eliminated from the butter and a pure oil remains. This oil has great cooking properties, superb taste and many health giving properties as well as mystical Hindu properties.
Writers of Indian Recipes, please don’t equate ghee to clarified butter, for it is confusing for your Western audiences. Call it Ghee, and advise that they look for a good quality ghee in their supermarket or Indian grocery and not use anything labeled simply as clarified butter.
Technically, ghee is a type of clarified butter. But it’s not just any old type of clarified butter: all milk solids (including lactose) and moisture must be removed before it can become ghee (clarified butter that still retains some moisture and milk solids is not ghee).
How to make Ghee
Ghee also has many amazing properties.
Lemons (and Limes)
The word for lemon and for lime is the same in Hindi (nimbu), so you can expect to be confused. Never mind, most dishes from India work well with whichever one you have at hand. I have seen lemons called “yellow limes” in some recipes.
Paneer is an Indian cottage cheese-style cheese that is used in spicy Indian dishes. It is made from milk, split into curds and whey with lemon juice or vinegar, and pressed to remove liquid and form a light, spongy solid cheese. You can make it yourself or buy it fresh or frozen in good Indian shops.
- Prerna’s Five great breads of India
Dosa and other Indian breads (are not pancakes or crepes)
Dosa is a flat bread of Sth India, made without eggs and cooked on a flat tawa or other surface, from fermented or unfermented batters made from rice and lentils. Dosa is often referred to as a pancake or crepe. This is technically correct. As wikipedia says:
“A pancake is a thin, flat, round cake prepared from a batter, and cooked on a hot griddle or frying pan. Most pancakes are quick breads; some use a yeast-raised or fermented batter. Most pancakes are cooked one side on a griddle and flipped partway through to cook the other side. Depending on the region, pancakes may be served at any time, with a variety of toppings or fillings including jam, chocolate chips, fruit, syrup etc.
The pancake’s shape and structure varies worldwide. There are numerous variations of them throughout Europe. In Germany, pancakes can be made from potatoes. A crêpe is a Breton variety of thin pancake cooked on one or both sides in a special crepe pan to achieve a network of fine bubbles often compared to lace – a savory variety made from buckwheat is usually known as a galette.
In India the Pooda (sometimes called Cheela) is a pancake. They can be made either sweet or salty and are of different thicknesses in different places. They are made in a frying pan and are of a similar batter as their European counterparts [Ed: but are eggless].
Dosa, Appam, Neer dosa and Uttapam could be said to be other Indian pancakes. They are prepared by fermenting rice batter and split skinned urad bean (black lentil) blended with water. What Punjabis call a meetha pooda are a common breakfast food item in the Punjab. It is a sweet pancake which can be eaten with pickles and chutney. Most of the pithas in Assam are types of pancakes served on occasions such as Bihu. In most parts of India there is a sweet pancake called malpua served.“
If you want to refer to a dosa or similar flatbread as a pancake or crepe, it is good to be aware that thee common understanding of pancake is a dish made from wheat flour and eggs and often eaten for breakfast.
My preference is to avoid calling them pancakes or crepes, but it is a hard call, because when I make thin, circular pudla from chickpea flour, rice four and some wheat flour, they are certainly crepe-like but very different in taste to the Breton ones.
Rice and Lentil Based Dishes
A rice and toor dal based dish that contains vegetables and uses a very specific spice mix. VeggieBelly has a great explanation of this dish, much loved in Karnataka.
So many types of dal, so little time to cook them all! A dal is a combination of a lentil, spices and tempering. It may contain tomatoes, onions and other vegetables. Some dals highlight the tempering and the lentil base is simple, others highlight the dal base and have simpler temperings.
- The difference between Tadka Dal and Dal Fry is explained well by Chef in You: Tadka Dal is about the “Tadka” or “Tempering” whereas Dall Fry is about the richness of the Dal itself. When you see the word “Fry”, think about richness whereas “Tadka” communicates simple, comforting and warm. Tadka Dal prepares the dal along with onions and tomatoes with the tempering poured right before (or while) serving, while Dal Fry dal has the tempering acting as a base for the dal instead of a garnish.
Kitchdi/Khichidi (is not risotto)
A delicious dish of mung or toor dal and rice, highly recommended. It is eaten across India and is well known as a delicious and comforting dish.
It is very similar to Ven Pongal, the dish of South India.There are variations of kitchdi across India and beyond. However, it is not congee, which is rice cooked until it has disintegrated in water or broth. Porridge like, condiments are added to the finished dish, such as red or black vinegar, peanuts, crispy fried onions, soy sauce etc.
Many Indian bloggers will call Kitchdi as Indian Risotto. While it may seem to some that it is similar to risotto in creamy texture when cooked well, it varies substantially from risotto in implied background, method or taste. In my humble opinion it is misleading for writers of recipes of Indian food to refer to Pongal or Kitchdi as Risotto.
The similarity ends with the fact that both are made from short grain rices that produce a creamy result. (Note the kitchdi is sometimes cooked with long grain rice.) Using the word “Risotto” to describe any dish also implies
1) it is Italian in style, and
2) the preferred method of cooking is by continually stirring the rice and gently ladling in stock for 20 minutes approx, stopping when the rice is al dente
3) wine is often used in the stock
4) Cheeses such as parmesan are usually added at the end, with butter
4) risottos can be soupy or dry, depending on the ingredients, style, regions and tradition. This is often misunderstood. They are always creamy.
6) They may or may not contain vegetables, which are pre cooked if necessary and added at the end.
In contrast, Kitchdi contains mung or other dal and rice, usually cooked together in a pressure cooker but can be cooked on the stove top, open fire or in a rice cooker. It may or may not include vegetables. Usually those vegetables are cooked with the kitchdi. It does include a range of spices and some ghee or other oil.
And finally, the final dishes are very different in taste.
If you have never tried kitchdi, you should!
- Great information about kitchdi here, as well as a great long grained, non-mushy variation.
- Ven Pongal
- Kitcheri with Toor Dal
Very similar to Kitchdi. It is not at all similar to risotto. Writers of recipes for Indian food, please do not refer to Pongal or Kitchdi as Risotto. (See Kitchdi for explanation)
Poha, Pohe, Pauwa, Pawa
An uncooked flattened/beaten rice. This ingredient is called poha (po-hay), and there is a common dish made with poha which is also called poha.
- A great explanation of thick and thin poha and a recipe for the dish Poha
Biryani vs Pilau
Many quick recipes for biryani can be found. This traditional recipe explains biryani very well, and the difference between biryani and pilau. It is worth reading even though you may choose to cook a quicker version than this traditional one.
Avail / Avayil
A rich variety of vegetables cooked in yoghurt. This is one of the popular dish in South India, especially in Kerala.
Erissery is a traditional vegetable preparation from Kerala. Vegetables, particularly mushy vegetables, and some fruits, are cooked in a coconut gravy and the dish is tempered with fried coconut. Traditionally, erissery calls for ghee instead of oil which gives it a special flavour and enhances the taste.
Usually Erissery is prepared from pumpkins and red beans or from yam and raw bananas cubes. The spices used in this dish include split green chillies, ground coconut, cumin seeds, turmeric and red chillies.
Usli and Sundal
Often thought to be the same, traditionally Usli is a mixture of lentils and vegetables, while a Sundal comprises lentils only. Usli is a dish eaten at mealtime, whereas Sundal is more of a snack food/street food. Sundal also traditionally was a prasadam, cooked specifically as offerings for the Gods, but now is much more ubiquitous.
Chutneys – Thuvaiyal, Masiyal, Chutney, Thayir Pachadi
Although cooked and long-lasting chutneys exist in India, it is most likely that you will find a fresh, quickly made, quickly consumed chutney when reading a chutney recipe. A variety of uncooked or blended/pounded chutneys are eaten all over the south India. They are delicious and healthy, providing a wonderful taste contrast to the main spicy dishes.
In Southern India, especially Tamil Nadu, Thuvaiyal, Masiyal, Chutney, and Thayir Pachadi all belong to the blended chutney family and their specific name depends on the souring agent used. Thuvaiyals, for example, are generally made by blending raw, boiled vegetables, roasted pulses with red chili and tamarind.
more to come
|Name||Common Name||Other Name|
|Pigeon Peas||Toor Dal||Tuvar Dal; Toovar Dal; Tur Dal; Arhar Dal; Yellow Split Peas|
|Pauwa, Pawa (Hindi, Gujarati)||Pohe (Marathi)||Poha (Hindi, Gujarati)|
|Poha (Hindi, Gujarati)||Pohe (Marathi)||Pauwa, Pawa (Hindi, Gujarati)|
|Tuvar Dal||Toor Dal||Pigeon Peas; Toovar Dal; Tur Dal; Arhar Dal; Yellow Split Peas|
|Yellow Split Peas||Toor Dal||Tuvar Dal; Toovar Dal; Tur Dal; Arhar Dal; Pigeon Peas|
- Tempering – unifying factor of Indian cuisine (pritya.com)